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RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

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RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by Joshua on Mon Oct 05, 2009 5:02 pm

Topic
2: Ultrasound





Nature
of Sound:



  • Sound
    – Vibrations that travel through the air and are detectable (at
    certain frequencies) by the ear.


  • Synonyms:
    Resonance, Echo, Noise


  • hertz(Hz)
    is a unit of frequency.


  • 20-20,000
    hertz (Hz) the normal range of hearing of a human – range is in
    audible sound.


  • Any
    sound with higher frequency of the audible (Audible- loud enough to
    be heard) sound range is called ultrasound.


  • Subsonic
    is a sound in the 0 to 20 Hz range.






The
First Use of Ultrasound:



  • Ultrasound
    was used to detect submarines during WWI (SONAR – SOund NAvigation
    and Range), WWII testing begin on human tissue for diagnostic
    purpose.






History
of Ultrasound



  • 1870,
    the first artificial ultrasound done by curie brothers Jacque and
    Pierre who first describe the piezoelectric effect.


  • Piezo
    is a greek word mean press.


  • The
    piezoelectric effect – the change in electric charge distribution
    of crystalline materials following a mechanical stress or
    electrically polarized when stressed.


  • Between
    1940-1950’s 3 physicians discovered ultrasound waves could form an
    image, through sending the waves thru the body and echoes
    reflecting.


  • The
    piezoelectric effect is the fundamental physical principle for all
    medical ultrasound.






The
Fundamental Physical Principle:



  • Sound
    waves are vibrations passing through a material.


  • A
    sound beam is like an x-ray beam, composed of waves that transfer
    energy from one point to another. (radiation passes through vacuum,
    sound wave pass through matter)


  • Ultrasound
    imaging utilizes high-frequency sound waves to form an image.


  • Components
    needed to produce an ultrasonic image are transducer, an ultrasound
    beam and a cathode ray tube or TV monitor for the display of image.


  • The
    transducer serves two purpose: To transmits sound in pulses or burst
    and sense the echoes returning from the previous pulse.


  • X-rays
    are produced when electrons are accelerated to a very high speed and
    then decelerated or suddenly stopped. Sound waves are produce in the
    transducer by a vibrating crystal.


  • Vibrations
    are passed from one layer of tissue to another. Image structures
    depend on the physical characteristics of the tissue such as atomic
    number or thickness. (Stiffness, Elasticity, Compressibility)


  • Impedance
    - Total Resistance to the flow of the current.


  • Acoustic
    Impedance (Z) – The reflection of the sound at an interface.







Material

Acoustic
Impedance


Blood

1.61

Bone

7.80

Brain

1.58

Fat

1.38

Kidney

1.62

Liver

1.65

Muscle

1.70

Soft Tissue

1.63

Water

1.48






  • Difference
    between ultrasound and radiography: ultrasound pulses continually
    loses energy as it passes through the body, where x-ray photon loses
    its energy all at once





















Prepared
by:








Joshua
p. Sero, MAEd-HPE, RRT


RT
Program Chair
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Joshua

Posts : 9
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Age : 40

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by saxons on Mon Oct 05, 2009 6:53 pm

copy ko nalang ito sir. . . my umaga. . my pag asa. .



-=saxons=-
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saxons

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by mhimaii on Mon Oct 05, 2009 8:30 pm

hahaiiyzz
ta3 yaba tah ani GAR Smile)
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mhimaii

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by mhimaii on Mon Oct 05, 2009 8:33 pm

thax sir
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mhimaii

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by renien on Sat Oct 17, 2009 6:41 pm

hai Sir..
cover2cover

pud buh atoang exam??

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renien

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by gracelicious on Sat Oct 17, 2009 6:55 pm

moico?
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gracelicious

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by saxons on Sun Oct 18, 2009 3:13 pm

thanx daan sir bisag nabagsak ko sa imong subject. . !! lamats!
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saxons

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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

Post by saxons on Sun Oct 18, 2009 3:14 pm

dili ata cover2cover ang exam. .


ultrasound to MRI lang ata. .



pero taas taas baya xia. .



hahays. . .


ambot nalng ni. .
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Re: RT 200 Finals Topic 2: Ultrasound

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