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Pre-final Topic 2: X-ray Machine

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Pre-final Topic 2: X-ray Machine

Post by Joshua on Tue Sep 08, 2009 4:06 pm

RT200 Pre-Final

Introduction to Radiologic Technology
with Science, Technology and Society

Topic1: X-ray Machine

  1. X-ray machine / x-ray imaging system

    1. Define:Apparatus that provides a source of x-ray / Associate equipment required for producing x-ray photographs.
    2. Description:X-ray system designed for radiography, tomography and fluoroscopy.
    3. Function:To provide a controlled flow of electrons intense enough to produce an x-ray beam appropriate for imaging.
    4. Types of x-ray imaging system

      • Diagnostic x-ray IS – operated at voltages of 25-150 kVp with tube current of 100 to 1200mA
      • General Purpose x-ray – contains radiographic IS and fluoroscopic IS.

  1. Three(3) man components of x-ray imaging system

    1. X-ray tube

      • Compose of Anode and Cathode
      • Anode

        • The positive (+) side of x-ray tube
        • It conducts electricity and radiates heat and contains the target.
        • It has 3 functions:

          • Electrical conductor – receives electrons emitted by cathode
          • Mechanical support for the target

            • Target – area of anode struck by the electrons from the cathode.

  • Thermal dissipater – kinetic energy – heat energy
  • 2 types of anode

    • Stationary– Dental x-rays, portable
    • Rotating – General purpose x-ray tubes (Produce high intensity x-ray

  • Cathode

    • The negative (-) side of x-ray tube
    • It contains a filament and focusing cup

      • Filament – A coil of wire that electric current is conducted, causing it to glow and emit large quantity of heat.
      • Focusing cup – A metal shroud that surrounds the filament. It is
        negatively charged that electron beam is condensed and directed
        to the target.

        • Effectiveness is in type of charge, size, shape and position.

      1. Operating Console

        • Description: It is located in the adjoining room with a protective barrier separating the OC and the machine.
        • Function: Controls the tube current and voltage to have a proper quantity and quality x-ray beam. Controls the lone compensation of kVp, mAs and exposure time.

          • Radiation quantity

            • Number and intensity of x-ray beam.
            • milliroentgens (mR), milliAmpere seconds (mAs) – unit used

  • Radiation Quality

    • Penetrability of x-ray beam
    • kiloVoltage peak (kVp) – unit used

      1. High Voltage Generator

        • To increase the output voltage from the autotransformer to the kVp necessary for x-ray production.
        • Autotransformers

          • It is where the power supplied delivered.
          • Electromagnetic Induction principle(Oersted principle – electricity can be used to generate [produce, create] magnetic fields )

    1. X-ray production

    • When electrons are accelerated from the cathode to the target of the
      anode, three effects takes place:

        • Production of heat
        • Formation of characteristics x-rays
        • Formation of bremsstrahlung x-rays

    • When fast-moving electrons slam into a metal object, x-rays are produced.

    • The kinetic energy of the electron is transformed into electromagnetic

    • The function of the x-ray machine is to provide a sufficient intensity
      of electron flow from the cathode to anode in a controlled manner.

    • When electrons are accelerated from the cathode to the target of the
      anode, three effects takes place:

        • Production of heat
        • Formation of characteristics x-rays
        • Formation of bremsstrahlung x-rays

    • The three principal segments of an x-ray machine - ca control panel, a
      high-voltage power supply, and the x-ray tube are all designed to
      provide a large number of electrons focused to a small spot in such
      a manner that when the electrons arrive at the target, they have
      acquired high kinetic energy.


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